Lepidoptera of Afghanistan Annotated Bibliography and Synonymical Checklist of the known species. Priamus Suppl. 26: 1-134, 17 figs. This paper deals with the bibliography and the checklist of the Lepidoptera of Afghanistan. Totally 1675 species of 51 families of the Lepidoptera are listed with the chronologically arranged synonyms, and the range of the species mentioned in codes. Some taxa are also provided with the original references and vernacular names in English and Turkish. Here 239 butterfly, and 1436 moth species are listed, represented in the Lepidoptera fauna by 14 percent, and 86 percent, respectively. Totally 835 publications are listed and evaluated according to their contents, i.e., selected 28 scientific subjects. In a special chapter, some illustrations of the classical works on South West Asia are evaluated with some remarks on the species of Afghanistan. Nomenclatural case of Zygaena afghana Moore,1860 is discussed. E d i t o r i a l: The Cesa and the traps around us, an editorial comment. "...We proposed these generic names to the related taxa, as we respect Canadian sovereignty, similarly to the state Guinea, and Latina....Extremely irresponsible words, and attitudes of “Peace On Behalf Of Doug Yanega [University of California]”, are very unfortunate, and it needs decorously an urgent formal apology to these 26 states and their honoured, respectful people, if the Universal Declaration of the Human Rights is really recognized." Field studies planned in 2012 and current conditions in East Turkey.